People have long dreamed of flying in space , but only in the twentieth century dreams become a reality . It has not discovered all the secrets of the then superpowers , for which the ” space race ” was just another stage of the competition. Even before World War II were created in Germany , the Soviet Union and the United States a small rocket. In the 30s British Society of Astronautics developed a technical project manned space rocket , which, however, was not realized . In 1942 started constructed by Werner von Braun’s German rocket Battle A-4 , known as the V -2 . During the trial flew to a height of more than 80 kilometers , making it the first human-made object that came close to the border of space. According to the International Federation of Air for the boundary is considered to be the height of 100 km above sea level ( the Americans give the title of the astronaut to anyone who has risen above 80 km above sea level ) . After the war, the study captured by the Russians and Americans copies of the V-2 accelerated in both countries work on space rockets and also ( and perhaps primarily ) combat . Sam von Braun went along with the other German scientists as part of the secret of the ” Paperclip ” to the U.S., where he played a significant role in the space program . It’s only been a few years since the end of World War II, when the former allies – the Soviet Union and the United States , began the Cold War . One of its manifestations was the rivalry in the conquest of space , called the ” space race ” . It was in him both a propaganda – proving that ” we” are better than “them” , and of the practical use of space flight technology for military purposes.
That race began in 1957, when he was in orbit the first artificial satellite of the earth , the Soviet Sputnik I. This metal sphere , suitable from the sky over the U.S. signal aroused panic Americans who were afraid that just as easily could drive up on their country of Soviet nuclear warheads . Their fear was indeed justified , since Sputnik was reworked version of the R -7 rocket , designed for the transfer of nuclear weapons. Besides, it was difficult to reconcile them with the idea that their technique was worse than the Russian . Americans for several years been working on its own space rocket , but her home is still delayed due to technical problems. Soviet Aerospace meanwhile, once again proved its superiority . Still in the same year in space flew the first living creature – the dog Laika . Long years of Russians claimed that Laika was euthanized after 10 days in orbit because of the inability to safely bring her to the ground. In 2002, he revealed that the dog died shortly after entering the orbit. The mystery and ambiguity from the beginning surrounded the Soviet space program . For a long time it was top secret , for example, the name of the creator of the Soviet space rockets , Sergei Korolev . This outstanding engineer was the life known publicly only as ” chief designer ” . When 24 October 1960 was killed the commander of the Soviet rocket forces , Marshal Mitrofan Niedelin , given that he lost his life in a plane crash in the course of their duties . It was not until the late eighties revealed that he was one of the 160 victims of the crash , which happened to Baikonur Cosmodrome . In preparation for the rocket starts a new type of fuel exploded . Probably disregarded previously detected faults , because the authorities wanted to celebrate the launch rocket attributable soon anniversary of the October Revolution . Typical of the Soviet obsession with secrecy frequented sometimes brought to the absurd, giving the medium is different conspiracy theories . April 12, 1961 Yuri Gagarin was the first man circled Earth in the spaceship Vostok 1 The flight was notified only when Gagarin happily returned , and immediately began to manipulate the information . First, given false Vostok orbit parameters , which were corrected after a few days. Further inaccuracies related to landing an astronaut on Earth. The individual exchange relationships , for example, different places and color suit.
According to one newspaper welcomed Gagarin on Earth tractor drivers , according to another – women with kolkhoz , according to yet another – specially sent paratroopers team . Sam Gagarin ” recalled ” as encountered after landing peasant woman immediately recognized him , but then he was not yet well-known person . Long time Russians persistently claimed that Gagarin returned to Earth in the cab of his vehicle , although all subsequent Vostok pilots ejected out of them in the air and falls to the ground by parachute . It was only in the 90s revealed that the first cosmonaut did the same. It is difficult to say what the result of the distortion – intentional disinformation , excessive fantasy journalists , poor memory Gagarin same or maybe all of these elements. In any case, the effect was such that there are conspiracy theories , according to which Gagarin never been in space. Apparently ” substituted ” it in place of another astronaut , who – according to various versions – was killed , wounded or imprisoned by the Chinese after landing . Gagarin’s death in a plane crash in 1968, was not , according to proponents of this theory accidental – had to bend because he knew too much . Another version of this theory is that Gagarin was the first to … returned from space. Before it had to be others who always remained outer space . They were even people who claim that it received from the spacecraft by radio their voices . Those Interestingly, some of them could actually hear a human voice coming from outer space , only that he was playing with the tape. It was to examine how it will work in radio communication with future astronauts . For years, the biggest mystery of Soviet astronautics was a plan to send a man to the moon. Such a flight would be a culmination of the “cosmic race.” For Americans, it was the last chance to defeat him Russians, the Russians – the ultimate way to deepen your opponent. U.S. President John F. Kennedy at the beginning of his presidency that 1,961 years publicly announced a plan to send a man to the moon by the end of the decade. Started when the ” Apollo ” was a success . 25 December 1968 for the Apollo 8 was the first to reach the orbit of the Moon. July 20, 1969 , members of the crew of Apollo 11 , Neil Armstrong and Aldrin landed Edvin on the Moon . Armstrong first stepped on the moon , uttering the famous words : ” a small step for man , one giant leap for mankind.” To the Moon sent six more ships Apollo , but it was heard on only five . Flight of Apollo 13 almost ended in tragedy because of damage to the fuel tank . Astronauts managed to return to Earth . The program was discontinued quite sharply in 1972 , mainly due to the decline in the public interest . Russians carried out their ” lunar plans ” in secret. Due to the mounting technical difficulties and personality conflicts between designers , especially after the death of Korolev , the Soviet cosmonaut never stepped on the Moon . It should be noted that the Soviet lunar lander could take only one person , and two American . The only success of the program was a Soyuz spacecraft , designed initially was to fly to the moon , and eventually used for flights to Earth orbit . Subsequent versions of Soyuz are indeed used today. Even the best vehicle but could not go without a proper rocket. Meanwhile, the huge Soviet rocket N -1 was a failure . Of the four launch attempts , not one failed.
To be continued …