The ” Manhattan”

The history of the ” Manhattan” began modestly , Albert Einstein’s letter to U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt . Ended in the death of many thousands of people. Did they have to die? In a letter sent on 2 August 1939 the famous physicist wrote about the possibility of building a bomb of enormous power. The explosion would not have been caused by using conventional explosive, but breaking the chain reaction of uranium fission . Einstein feared that the Nazis can work on such weapons , and in any case advised the president to do the same . Germany actually conducted the nuclear program , but historians still do not agree , as they were close to building the bomb. President Roosevelt warning not too bothered . Although instructed to begin work on its nuclear program , but predestined for him “to ” $ 6,000 . Two years later, almost all of Europe was under the rule of Nazi Germany , which sought precisely to the conquest of the USSR. Japan occupied Indochina . Interviews British and American know about the plans of the Japanese attack on the United States, but for unknown reasons still not notified their president. The Americans decided to accelerate the work on the atomic bomb – December 6, 1941 , he officially started a top secret program of its construction , which was later given the code name ” Manhattan” . By strange coincidence, the next day the Japanese bombs fell on the port in the U.S. Navy at Pearl Harbor , Hawaii. The United States were in a state of war. Meanwhile, over a year in the UK group of physicists working on the atomic bomb project ” Tube Alloys ” . One of them was an immigrant from Germany, named Klaus Fuchs . In August 1943 Roosevelt and Churchill signed an agreement on the inclusion of a British program to the U.S. . Scientific project manager ” Manhattan ” was the physicist Robert Oppenheimer and Gen. Leslie Groves, the military . Laboratory program was founded in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The place was surrounded by the strictest secret and officially did not exist . Scientists could not even use the word bomb . Nobody even came to mind that one of the most important members of the research team is a Soviet spy . Klaus Fuchs , an avid Communist , he could not accept the fact that the Western Allies would build a new weapon in secret before Stalin. He believed that for the good of humanity and its communist bright future must help the Soviets in the creation of the atomic bomb . Even in England, has partnered with the Soviet military intelligence GRU . For his espionage activities did not take the money. Fuchs , called by the then press ” vilest traitor of all time “, was exposed in 1950. In the surroundings of the ” Manhattan” acted also other spies . Loud was the case of Julius and Ethel marriage Rosenberg , arrested and sentenced to death in the early ’50s The twentieth century. Their trial aroused great excitement – Rosenbergs to the end claimed to be innocent. It was only in 1995, revealed documents that unequivocally confirmed the guilt of Julius . It remains a mystery whether the spy was also his wife . Controversial seems to be the judgment itself . Rosenberg passed on to the Russians relatively unimportant data and ended up in the electric chair , while Fuchs , who according to experts accelerated the rise of the Soviet atomic bomb by several years , was sentenced to 14 years in prison , of which he served only five . Then he went to East Germany , where he continued his scientific career , and has held a number of senior positions . Initially, the team Oppenheimer had a vague notion of what develops . It was not clear what force will have a new weapon that will trigger effects, and whether he works. It was long thought that the atomic bomb would be very large and you will carry it on the ship . The only problem was , as the ship entered the harbor unseen enemy. Researchers from the project ” Manhattan” had no moral scruples related to the creation of a new powerful tool for killing . They believed that save Western civilization from destruction by Nazi barbarians and thus ensure a better future for the world . “The power of our weapons will make the violence will disappear and there will be a general peace ” – once said Oppenheimer . In early 1945 the work coming to an end . Under construction are two types of bombs : uranium and plutonium . It was already known that the bomb will fit into a large aircraft. Scientists , soldiers and politicians began to wonder where to use new weapons. In the end, the aim of the attack was determined German city of Ludwigshafen and Mannheim . Upon reflection , however, was that the damage to waste valuable bomb , if Third Reich and it was almost defeated. The second goal was a Japan . Although the Japanese have since borne only natural , did not intend to give up. U.S. commanders decided to apply the same strategy against Germany : the mass bombing . Since the end of 1944 years thousands of heavy bombers Boeing B -29 every night throw bombs on more cities . The effect was terrifying : killed more than 200,000 people , burned almost half of the houses , factories practically stood . Despite this, August 2, 1945 the Japanese government rejected the Allied ultimatum on the immediate surrender. Preparations for defense against the invasion of the Japanese islands . Meanwhile, in May convened a special committee to select possible targets with nuclear attack . With the destruction of the imperial palace in Tokyo was abandoned because it could backfire : increase the will to fight. Kyoto was a good goal , but decided to save them because of the historic nature . At the end of the list were: Hiroshima, Kokura , Niigata and Nagasaki. July 16, 1945 came the historic moment . In the desert near the town of Alamogordo , New Mexico, exploded the first atomic bomb , called ” Gadget ” . The researchers concluded that the uranium bomb simpler certainly work, but you have to try more complicated plutonium . Among those gathered on the military observers joy reigned . Just thoughtful Oppenheimer quoted a fragment supposedly ancient Hindu epic Bhagwad Gita – ” I am become death , the destroyer of the world …”, though by his brother , Frank , he said only : ” It works .” Message sent immediately successful attempt to staying at the Potsdam Conference President Harry Truman . He said the new weapon of Stalin , but to his surprise that kept a straight face . Truman’s advisers acknowledged that ” primitive Georgian ” did not understand what is said to him . They did not know that the Soviet leader by Fuchs better versed in the details of the ” Manhattan” than his American interlocutor , who was informed about the case until after assuming the presidency in April this year . July 25, 1945 year Truman ordered the use of ” special bombs ” if the Japanese reject the ultimatum on the immediate surrender. When that happened, on Monday, August 6 B-29 bomber with the 509th Mixed Bomb Group dropped a uranium bomb ” Little Boy” on Hiroshima . According to the latest data instantly killed more than 70,000 people. Another 10,000 died in the years following radiation sickness .